Data are analyzed and displayed neurologically (left is left) in SPM5 at p=-0.05 and are overlain on the MNI brain. Activations are significant at p < 0.0001 uncorrected at the cluster level. Hot colors represent increases in perfusion, and cool colors represent decreases. Crosshairs for all conditions are centered on the peak voxel.

Click the brain regions in the table below to view the ROI in three planes.

All Time 1 Varenicline Time 2 Placebo Time 2
Regional Increases X Y Z T Value X Y Z T Value X Y Z T Value
Anterior Cingulate 2 38 4 4.46
Thalamus -22 -6 -6 3.80
-- -12 -4 0 4.31
-- 8 -16 -6 3.03
Parahippocampus 16 -56 -2 3.10 30 -44 -6 3.63
-- -34 -64 -8 4.53
Hippocampus 24 -14 -12 3.44
Precuneus 0 -58 16 3.92
Regional Decreases X Y Z T Value X Y Z T Value X Y Z T Value
VS/mOFC -6 20 -10 -3.31
Post Central Gyrus 4 -30 62 -4.64
Superior Frontal Cortex 2 24 40 -4.21
Ventral Lateral PFC -38 44 -4 -3.23
-- 40 42 -10 -3.35
Amygdala 20 6 -20 -3.26
Lingual Gyrus 8 -88 -16 -5.59

Listed above are the coordinates from the supra-threshold voxel within a cluster and T values from regions wherein resting baseline activation in LOFC correlated with activity in the brain during SC exposure. Note that in the varenicline subjects only, enhanced activation in LOFC correlated with reductions in activity in VS/mOFC. Individual ‘subject’ values selected for measuring LOFC effects were acquired by calculating a mean value from a sphere with a 6 mm radius, its center located at the resting baseline ‘group’ data supra-threshold voxel (22 26 - 14). T values listed are from the supra-threshold voxel within the cluster. Activations are significant at p < 0.0001 uncorrected at the cluster level. Left-sided brain responses are indicated by negative 'x' coordinate values. Abrev: L, lateral; m, medial; PFC, prefrontal cortex; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; VS, ventral striatum.